Chessis a two-playerstrategyboard gameplayed on achessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to have originated inIndiasometime before the 7th century. The game was derived from the Indian gamechaturanga, which is also the likely ancestor of theEasternstrategy gamesxiangqi,janggi, andshogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to theUmayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the rules were standardized in the 19th century.
Play does not involve hidden information. Each player begins with 16pieces: oneking, onequeen, tworooks, twoknights, twobishops, and eightpawns. Each of the six piece typesmovesdifferently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn. The objective is tocheckmatethe opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other. During the game, play typically involves makingexchangesof one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but also finding and engineering opportunities to trade one piece for two, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponentresigns, or (in a timed game) runs out of time. There are also several ways that a game can end in adraw.